The main mode of transmission is through insect vector i.e. the phloem-inhabiting phytoplasmas . These type of phytoplasmas are transmitted by phloem-feeding hemipteran insects; leafhopper and planthopper species are the primary vectors . The research interest has centred on Zophiuma pupillata (Hemiptera: Lophopidae) as this insect breeds on coconuts. even though the actual vector is yet to be confirmed.
According to KIK, the symptoms can be divided into different stages as follows:
Infected palm with almost half of the mature fronds turning yellow (Source: KIK)
Palms with dead dried fronds (Source: KIK)
Some steps to contain the damage caused by BSC :